THE NEW YORK COURT OF APPEALS
CIVIL PRACTICE OUTLINE


Prepared by the Clerk's Office, New York Court of Appeals
Stuart M. Cohen, Clerk of the Court
Marjorie S. McCoy, Deputy Clerk,
Richard A. Reed, Deputy Clerk


September 2007


I. APPEALS AS OF RIGHT

A. Individual Jurisdictional Predicates

1. Double Dissent at the Appellate Division -- CPLR 5601(a)
2. Constitutional Question -- CPLR 5601(b)(1) -- Appeal from Final Appellate Division Order
3. Constitutional Question -- CPLR 5601(b)(2) -- Direct Appeal from Court of Original Instance (When That Court Is Not the Appellate Division)
4. Stipulation for Judgment Absolute -- CPLR 5601(c)
5. Appeal Pursuant to CPLR 5601(d)

B. Rule 500.10 Review of Subject Matter Jurisdiction

II. MOTIONS FOR LEAVE TO APPEAL

A. Certiorari Jurisdiction
B. What is a Motion for Leave?
C. Statutory Requirements -- Jurisdictional Predicates

1. Motions for Leave To Appeal from Final Appellate Division Orders -- CPLR 5602(a)(1)(i)
2. Motions for Leave To Appeal To Obtain Review of Prior Nonfinal Orders Only -- CPLR 5602(a)(1)(ii)
3. Motions for Leave To Appeal from Nonfinal Orders -- CPLR 5602(a)(2) -- Administrative Context
4. Motions for Leave To Appeal by Permission of the Appellate Division -- CPLR 5602(b)

D. How to Move for Leave to Appeal -- Rule 500.22 Requirements
E. Common Errors in Motions for Leave

III. GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING A MOTION FOR LEAVE TO APPEAL

A. Certiorari Factors -- Rule 500.22(b)(4)
B. Some Reasons Why the Court Denies Leave
C. Some Reasons Why the Court Grants Leave
D. Conclusion

IV. RULE 500.11 REVIEW -- ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR SELECTED APPEALS

A. What Is It?
B. When Is It Invoked? -- Criteria in 22 NYCRR 500.11(b)
C. Countering Misconceptions about the Alternative Procedure
D. Benefits of the Alternative Procedure
E. How To Work with the Alternative Procedure

V. APPEALABILITY AND REVIEWABILITY

A. Definitions
B. Appealability

1. Appropriate Court
2. Aggrievement
3. Finality
4. Miscellaneous Appealability Problems

C. Reviewability

1. Preservation -- Issues Reviewable
2. CPLR 5501(a) -- Review of Prior Nonfinal Orders and Determinations
3. Scope of Review

VI. WHAT IS A FINAL DETERMINATION? -- A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH

A. Constitutional Requirement
B. Nonfinality

1. Merits Not Addressed -- Too Early
2. Merits Not Addressed -- Too Late
3. Merits Addressed -- Remittals for Further Judicial Action
4. Merits Addressed -- Claims Pending

C. Exceptions to Nonfinality

1. Express Severance
2. Implied Severance
3. Party Finality

4. Irreparable Injury

D. Separate Special Proceedings

VII. THE “NECESSARILY AFFECTS” REQUIREMENT

A. General Overview
B. The "Necessary Affects" Requirement
C. Example of Orders That Necessarily Affect Final Judgments
D. Examples of Nonfinal Orders That Do Not Necessarily Affect Final Judgments

APPENDIX: FINALITY CONTINUUM