During the years 1686-1689, New York was part of the Dominion of New England in America. Sir Edmund Andros, appointed by King James II of England, was Governor. In 1688, in the course of England's "Glorious Revolution," James II, a Catholic, was defeated by William of Orange, a Protestant. When word of this reached the Dominion of New England, Governor Andros and Joseph Dudley, Chief Judge of the Dominion, were arrested, jailed and sent to England for trial.
In the political vacuum that ensued, rumors of an attack on New York by forces loyal to James II caused much anxiety. Much of the citizenry of New York was Protestant and supported William. To preempt the rumored attack, the local militia seized Fort James in New York City on May 31, 1689, and declared loyalty to William and Mary. Jacob Leisler, a German immigrant from a long line of jurists and now a New York merchant and zealous Calvinist, drafted a declaration that stated "as soon as the bearer of orders from the prince of Orange shall let us see his power, then without delay we do intend to obey, not the orders only, but also the bearer thereof." The militia set up a Committee of Safety to govern New York pending the arrival of a governor appointed by William and Leisler, who had studied at a military academy in his youth, emerged as the commander. On June 6, 1689, Lieutenant-Governor Nicholson departed for England carrying depositions for the crown and shortly afterward, word was received from England that William and Mary confirmed in office all Protestants holding royal commissions. The only area of the Province not then under Leisler's command was Albany and the anti-Leisler faction, including Bayard and van Cortlandt, gathered there. Following Bayard's arrest and imprisonment by Leisler's forces, many in the faction fled to neighboring provinces and in early 1690, the militia took control of Albany.
Although William and Mary commissioned Henry Sloughter as Governor of New York on November 14, 1689, he did not depart from England until December 1, 1690. While at sea, his ships encountered stormy weather, and it was the ship upon which his Lieutenant-Governor, Major Richard Ingoldesby, sailed that first arrived in New York harbor. Ingoldesby lacked official documents (which were on Sloughter's ship), but he insisted that Leisler surrender the government and Fort James to him. Leisler refused, citing the absence of the documents of appointment. Ingoldsby had the support of the members of the old Council and, during the six weeks that followed, the City split into two armed camps. When Governor Sloughter arrived, he issued a second demand for surrender and Leisler sent envoys to the Governor in reply. These emissaries were immediately seized as rebels and the following morning, when Leisler surrendered the fort, he and many of his followers were arrested and imprisoned.
A Committee for Preparing the Prosecution, consisting of Nicholas Bayard, William Pinhorne, and Stephen Van Cortlandt was set up and a special session of the Court of Oyer and Terminer was convened on April 10, 1691. Leisler, Jacob Milborne (Leisler's son-in-law), and eight others were indicted and charged with the treasonable act of holding the king's fort by force against the royal governor, such action resulting in several deaths. Joseph Dudley was appointed chief judge of the tribunal. He had been Chief Judge of the Dominion of New England under James II and was now newly-commissioned by William and Mary. Many of the associate judges appointed were anti-Leislarians: Thomas Johnson, a judge of admiralty; Sir Robert Robinson, Colonel William Smith, Recorder William Pinhorne, Mayor New York City John Lawrence, Jasper Hicks, captain of the frigate "Archangel," Major Richard Ingoldsby, Colonel John Young, and Captain Isaac Arnold.
Leisler and Milborne, refuse to plead until the court ruled on the legality of the authority under which they had held Fort James. That authority consisted of a commission from King William, dated July 30, 1689 and addressed to Lieutenant-Governor Nicholson or, in his absence "to such as for the time being take care of preserving the peace and administering the laws" (a reference to the Governor's Council). This document re-appointed Nicholson (previously appointed by James II) as Lieutenant-Governor. The document did not reach New York until December 9, 1689, by which time Nicholson had departed the Province. The king's emissary delivered the commission to Leisler who controlled the City, and the Committee on Safety deemed Leisler legally appointed Lieutenant-Governor because he was "the person who administered the laws and preserved the peace."
The court declined to address the question but referred it to the Governor and Council who responded that the royal papers gave no power or direction to Leisler. Again, Leisler and Milborne, neither of whom was represented by counsel, refused to plead. The trial lasted eight days, the jury found the defendants guilty, and Leisler and Milborne were sentenced to death. Governor Henry Sloughter was hesitant to execute the men who had first raised the standard of William of Orange and Protestantism, and sought instructions from England. But before the authorities in England could respond, the anti-Leisler faction prevailed upon the Governor to sign the death warrants while, it is said, he was very drunk. Before he had regained his senses, the executions were carried out.1 Leisler and Milbourne were hung on Saturday, May 16, 1691.
Appeal to the House of Lords
Upon the petititon of Leisler's son, a committee of the House of Lords held an inquiry into the legality of the execution of Leisler and Milborne. During those proceedings, Lord Bellomont declared that Leisler and Milborne had been "barbarously murdered." The House of Lords reversed the attainder and posthumously restored Leisler and Milborne to their estates. In 1698, when Governor Bellomont arrived in New York, he approved the disinterment of the remains of Leisler and Milborne from the hole beneath the gallows into which they had been hastily thrown after the execution. Under guard of 100 soldiers provided by Bellomont, and with upwards of twelve hundred people marching to the beat of muffled drums in torch-lit procession, the remains were brought to City Hall, where they lay in state for several days. Following funeral ceremonies, the bodies were interred in the Dutch Church.
The trial had lasting effect and the executions made martyrs of both Leisler and Milborne, deepened the divisions between pro- and anti-Leislerian factions, and influenced the politics of the Province for many decades afterwards.
David William Voorhees. "The 'fervent Zeale' of Jacob Leisler." 51 William and Mary Quarterly 447.
Bryant, William Cullen, Sydney Howard Gay, and Noah Brooks. Scribner's Popular History of the United States. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1896.
Harris, William Torrey. The United States of America: a Pictorial History of the American Nation from the Earliest Discoveries and Settlements to the Present Time. New York: Imperial, 1909.
1) "But the enemies of the condemned men did not stop because of such refusal. At a grand dinner, they brought the governor under the influence of wine, and then had little trouble in leading him further. While he was in this drunken condition, the death warrants of Leisler and Milborne were placed before him, and, without realizing the fearful step he was taking, he affixed his signature. This was on the 16th of May, 1691. When the governor recovered his senses he found that both the prisoners had been hanged, and their bodies beheaded in the presence of a large crowd of people." (The United States of America: a Pictorial History of the American Nation from the Earliest Discoveries and Settlements to the Present Time (1909)).
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