In New York City, bank failures and the conspiracy cases of 1826 caused severe calendar congestion in the Supreme Court and in the Court of Common Pleas. In response, the Legislature enacted a law establishing the Superior Court of the City of New York. It has civil jurisdiction coequal to the Supreme Court if either the plaintiff or defendant were a resident of the City of New York or if the case involved property located within the City limits. The first Chief Justice of the Superior Court was Samuel Jones, who resigned as New York Chancellor to accept this office. The Superior Court of the City of New York was abolished under the Constitution of 1894 and its jurisdiction was returned to the New York Supreme Court.